Programming as Performance

Programming as Performance? This sounds interesting and indeed it is, as you can see in this video by Sam Aaron (a Post-Doc Researcher at the Cambridge University):

He wrote Sonic Pi, a program to enable children and others interested in coding and music to create their very individual sounds using a simple keyboard and a Raspberry Pi.

How to convert a .PDF file to .PNG using Image Magick

ImageMagick is a powerfull tool to manipulate images. If you want to convert a .PDF to an .PNG file use the following command:

convert -verbose -density 300 -trim input.pdf -quality 100 -sharpen 0x1.0 -background white -flatten output.png

Assuming that your pdf is called “input.pdf” and consists only of one page. The above command colors any transparent background white.

(via and

Certified Salesforce Platform App Builder – Part 1: Exam Overview

In order to prepare and pass the Salesforce App Builder Exam I follow the learning path as described in the official “Certified Salesforce Platform App Builder Study Guide“.

But how many questions on each topic have to be answered in the exam? The total number of questions is 60 and the expected number of questions on each topic can easily be calculated:

Overview of exam questions per topic

Topic Weight Questions
Business Logic and Process Automation 27% 16,2
Data Modeling and Management 20% 12
User Interface 14% 8,4
Security 10% 6
Salesforce Fundamentals 8% 4,8
App Deployment 8% 4,8
Reporting 5% 3
Mobile 5% 3
Social 3% 1,8
Total 100% 60

My strategy is to begin with the most important topic with the most questions and work my way down to the end of the list.

This post is the beginning of a series of posts on how I prepared for the exam. This part gave an overview of the topics and their weights. In the next part of I will focus on “Business Logic and Process Automation” in Salesforce and go into more depth.

Stay tuned and stay focused!

Interesting Creative Digital & Internet Agencies

Since several months I work as a Full Stack Software Engineer for Scoop & Spoon, a creative digital & internet agency based in London (UK), Vienna and Graz (Austria). I was wondering which other digital & internet agencies are out there and luckily found an interesting article in the brand eins magazine regarding this topic. The following list is a compilation of interesting agencies out there:

Do you know other interesting agencies? Feel free to comment and point me to your favorites or leave any other feedback.

How to choose a versioning scheme for your software

As a developer, there comes the time were you think about how to version your software. One approach is “Semantic Versioning” which leverages the level of change on your public API. Depending on what you changed in your code, Semantic Versioning proposes different version numbers:

Given a version number MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH, increment the:

  1. MAJOR version when you make incompatible API changes,
  2. MINOR version when you add functionality in a backwards-compatible manner, and
  3. PATCH version when you make backwards-compatible bug fixes.

Additional labels for pre-release and build metadata are available as extensions to the MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH format.

Seems to be an appropriate scheme on versioning software. Which other schemes do you think about? Leave me a comment then I’m going to update this post accordingly.

Forbes Magazine features the Austrian Startup Scene

Forbes is one of the top magazines on business related topics. It published an interesting article called “Scaling Alpine Heights: Austria’s Startup Scene“on the Austrian Startup Scene. The following statement attracted my attention:

“The country is enjoying something of an entrepreneurial renaissance, driven largely by the return of some highly successful founders whose presence has awoken its capital Vienna from a start-up winter sleep.” [by Forbes]

The Austrian startups that made it to the article are the following ones (details on the startups can be found in the article and on their corresponding website):

Although Austria offers quite some support for starting a business (e.g. by granting loans, issuing bank guarantees and R&D grants, availability of cloud services such as AWS and Google App Engine) it is still not as startup friendly as it should be. High labour costs, high payroll-taxes and high health insurance costs not to forget the lack of real tax incentives for startups and startup investors to give some examples.

Florian Dorfbauer, CEO and co-founder of Austrian website feedback startup Usersnap states:

“I expect that Vienna will be the number one start-up hub of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) – other CEE capitals like Budapest or Bratislava are within a few hours’ travel time – and I expect the dogma ‘Move to Silicon Valley or Die’ to shift towards ‘move some people to Silicon Valley and keep the core-team in Austria’, as there is little reason to expose an early- to mid stage start-up to Silicon Valley cost structures.

“And of course I expect a string of successes from my fellow start-up colleagues, so yes, I am feeling very optimistic about Vienna.”

If this is the future of Austrian Startup Scene then I’m looking forward to it. What do you think about the Austrian Startup Scene? Leave me a comment or drop me a note on @hmuehlburger.



Eight elementary Skills every Entrepreneur should have

Do you think about starting your own company? Then you should think carefully about the elementary skills you need to do so. What are the eight elementary skills every entrepreneur needs? Thomas H. Byers et. al. compiled the following list in his book on “Technology Ventures – From Idea to Enterprise”:

  • Entrepreneurs initiate and operate a purposeful enterprise.
  • Entrepreneurs operate within the context and industrial environment at the time of initiation.
  • Entrepreneurs identify and screen timely opportunities.
  • Entrepreneurs accumulate and manage knowledge and technology.
  • Entrepreneurs mobilize resources (financial, physical, and human).
  • Entrepreneurs assess and mitigate uncertainty and risk associated within the initiation of the enterprise.
  • Entrepreneurs provide an innovative contribution or at least a contribution that encompasses novelty or originality.
  • Entrepreneurs enable and encourage a collaborative team of people who have the capabilities and knowledge necessary for success.

I encourage everyone to have a look at this great textbook. It contains a lot of useful information on starting your own enterprise.

(via Technology Ventures – From Idea to Enterprise by Thomas Byers, Richard Dorf, and Andrew Nelson)

Talk on Infrastructure at Scale: Apache Kafka, Storm and Elastic Search

The following talk gives a good overview on the technologies used by to build their scalable real-time-search log-processing infrastructure.

The slides of the talk can be found here:

Infrastructure at Scale: Apache Kafka, Twitter Storm & Elastic Search (ARC303) | AWS re:Invent 2013 from Amazon Web Services

Stanford Large Network Dataset Collection

Stanford Large Network Dataset Collection
Stanford Large Network Dataset Collection

The Stanford Large Network Dataset Collection was published as part of the Stanford Network Analysis Project (SNAP). It consists of an interesting collection of large networks. The aim of SNAP is provide a general purpose network analysis and graph mining library.

The SNAP Collection contains datasets from various domains such as:

It is definitely worth of having a look at the different datasets. What dataset are you missing? What would you like to be added to the collection? Leave a comment below!

(via Hacker News)

Nine Building Blocks of Business Models

In Alexander Osterwalder’s business model generation canvas every organization’s business model can be described using 9 building blocks:

Customer Segments

This are all the people and organizations for which you are creating value. This includes simple users and paying customers.

Value Proposition

This are products and services that create value for each of your customer segments.


Channels describe through which touch points you are interacting with your customers and delivering value.

Customer Relationships

Customer Relationships outline the type of relationship you establish with your customers.

Revenue Streams

The Revenue Streams make clear how and through which pricing mechanisms your business model is capturing value.

Key Resources

Key Resources describe the infrastructure through which you create, deliver, and capture value. The Key Resources show which assets are in dispense of your business model.

Key Activities

Key Activities show which things you really need to perform well in order to succeed with your business model.

Key Partnerships

Key Partnerships describe which partners could leverage your business model, since you won’t own all of your Key Resources and you won’t perform all of your Key Activities by yourself.

Cost Structure

Having knowledge of your business model infrastructure helps you in describing your Cost Structure.

On YouTube you find the following video titled: ” Alexander Osterwalder: The Business Model Canvas” which shows you the building blocks:

(via Business Models and Technology Entrepreneurship – Part 1)